(Currently available for M.Sc. and Ph.D. students)
Scalable Video Coding for 3G/4G Wireless Communications Systems
To satisfy the ever increasing transmission/reception speed demand for video communication services in today's high speed video communications systems over wireless links, 4G stands as the best competitor. However, in order to maximize throughput and video quality, the dynamical adjustment of OFDM Multiple Access Technique, adaptive modulation and MIMO techniques is required. This project focuses on the performance assessment of video traffic over a wireless communication link with varying channel conditions. The project mainly involves re-definition of system quality measures and parameters to adjust (such as modulation, coding rates and video quality) for improvement of these quality measures and implement a successful Scalable Video Coding (SVC) scenario where optimization of performance over varying channel conditions and scaling rate for the SVC is obtained.
Exploring Mobile/WiFi Handover with Multipath TCP
As the number of Internet users as well as the quality and variety of Internet services expand, users demand higher data rates in order to benefit from these multitude of services offered. Hence, there is an ever growing need for faster and more reliable networks and supporting protocols for such networks. Often 3G and 4G networks capacities are not satisfactory for carrying the increasing traffic volume, hence offloading the excess traffic through Wi-Fi networks is referred to as a supporting means in a mutually exclusive manner since the current TCPIP protocol supports only one service for connection at a time. However, the Multipath TCP (MPTCP) as an enhanced version of TCP enables employing multiple interfaces for a single connection seamlessly since the application is only aware of a standard TCP connection. The handover from Wi-Fi to 3G services forward and backwards is done in a transparent manner.
The project involves implementation and testing of the MPTCP protocol through multiple interfaces enabling different services such as Ethernet Cable, Wi-Fi and 3G. Linux Kernel implementation of the MPTCP protocol will be employed in order to test energy consumption and handover performance of the system in various applications such as VoIP.
- Christoph Paasch, Gregory Detal, Fabien Duchene, Costin Raiciu, Olivier Bonaventure, "Exploring Mobile/WiFi Handover with Multipath TCP", ACM SIGCOMM workshop on Cellular Networks (Cellnet'12), Helsinki, 2012.
- Soonghwan ro and Nguyen Wan, "Performance Evaluation of MPTCP over a Shared Bottleneck Link", International Journal of Computer and Communication Engineering, Vol. 5, No.3, May 2016.
High Capacity Wireless Communications Systems Design Employing Small Cells
Horizon2020 targets providing 300 Mbps for every house while offering 30 mbps wire and 20 Mbps wireless capacity per person. Hence, neither 3G nor 4G is capable of offering such capacities. As a competent for Future Wireless Communications Systems, therefore, 5G is sought to have 1,000 times larger system capacity, 10 times more energy efficiency, data rate, and spectral efficiency and 25 times more mobile throughput than the 4G / LTE networks in order to offer seamless communications, anywhere, at any time by just about any wireless device and between any people around the globe. However, the 5G standards are to be announced between 2016 and 2018 and the 5G products are expected at about 2020.
For coverage of densely populated areas where very high data rates are required, Internet of things or Device-to-Device (D2D) communication as a means of traffic offloading can improve spectrum utilization. At the same time, heterogeneous networks in such places as shopping malls, football grounds, train and bus stations, will allow devices close to each other to communicate without going through the operator's network. There are 2 major problems to solve in densely populated deployment regions of mass wireless communication devices: Limited available bandwidth and energy consumption per device, which increases indefinitely with the number and functionality of the devices, which will be one of the most important concerns of the future wireless systems.
The M.Sc. project work involves designing the high capacity and energy efficient Wireless Communication System that will meet the Horizon2020 requirements.
- Claudio Coletti, "Heterogeneous Deployment Analysis for Cost-Effective Mobile Network Evolution - An LTE Operator Case Study –" Department of Electronic Systems, the Faculty of Engineering and Science, Aalborg University, PhD Degree, Aalborg, Denmark, September 2012.
- Walid A., Sabir E., Kobbane A., Taleb .T, El Koutbi. Exploiting Multi-homing in Hyper Dense LTE Small-Cells Deployments. Accepted to IEEE WCNC 2016 conference April 2016, Doha, Qatar.
Adaptive Fuzzy Assisted Detector Design and Implementation for DVB Systems
The project focuses on the improvement achieved on different Digital Video Broadcasting system by the addition of a fuzzy median filter to eliminate the channel impairments such as multipath fading, impulsive noise and other nonlinear distortion agents. The proposed detector includes the fuzzy median filter based on fuzzy rank ordering of samples and can be adaptively adjusted according to the noise level and type of the noise. Performance estimation of the proposed detector will be obtained based on simulations in order to eliminate the effect of the channel impairments and improve the system performance.
Rizaner, Ahmet; Ulusoy, Ali Hakan; Amca, Hasan, "Adaptive fuzzy assisted detector under impulsive noise for
DVB-T systems" OPTIK, Volume: 127, Issue: 13, Pages: 5196-5199, Published: 2016.
Integration of WSN and Cloud Computing for SVTS (Smart Vehicular Traffic Surveillance)
Traffic congestion is one of the major issues in urban areas. The 2005 Urban Mobility Report  shows that the total cost of congestion for the 85 route U.S. urban areas is estimated to be 65 billion dollars per year, from 3.5 billion hours of delay and 5.7 billion gallons of excess fuel consumption. The developed and modern cities, that generate major part of countries' economy, are actually suffering from traffic congestions. Due to traffic congestion people are not only wasting their valuable time but they are also exposed to dangerous CO2 emissions. Traffic congestion is also one of the many factors for growing crime rate and decreasing road safety in highly populated cities.
There have been many procedures in the past to reduce the traffic congestion but they are not good enough due to exponential increase in vehicles miles travel. Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) has also been used for the surveillance in the recent years [2, 3]. It did not give desired results due to its limited processing and storage capabilities. This Smart Vehicular Traffic Surveillance model will be designed by dividing the two tasks to two different networks.
In this model sensing of vehicles is performed by WSN deployed near roadside of the congested areas and the processing is carried at some distant server using cloud computing concept. As this model has huge processing capabilities, therefore, many parameters of traffic congestion can be analyzed.
Objective of Study
How can we smartly reduce the vehicular traffic congestion?
- To decrease the unwanted delays caused by traffic congestion.
- To increase the road safety by smart vehicle identification method.
- To save the human health from excessive emissions of CO2.
 David Schrank, Tim Lomax, 2005 Urban Mobility Report, Texas Transportation Institute, The Texas A&M University System, 2005.
 Rashid Hussain, Dr.J.L.Sahgal, Anshul Gangwar, Md.Riyaj, "WSN APPLICATIONS: Traffic Monitoring Using AMR Sensors", International Journal of Scientific & Engineering Research, Volume 4, Issue 5, May-2013 1973 ISSN 2229-5518 IJSER 2013 http://www.ijser.org/.
 Francisco J. Martinez, University of Zaragoza, Spain, Chai-Keong Toh, ALICO Inc., USA, Juan-Carlos Cano, Carlos T. Calafate and Pietro Manzoni Univ. Politécnica de Valencia, Spain, "Emergency Services in Future Intelligent Transportation Systems Based on Vehicular Communication Networks", IEEE INTELLIGENT TRANSPORTATION SYSTEMS MAGAZINE SUMMER 2010.
Health Concerns of Cellular Wireless/Mobile Communication Systems
Some research results published in the literature claim that human's exposure to Electro-Magnetic-Fields (EMF) increases the risk of brain cancer while other research results deny this. Studying all the data available to date, the expert group working for World Health Organization (WHO), in Lyon, France came to a conclusion which classifies Radio-Frequency Electro-Magnetic-Fields (RF-EMF) as possibly carcinogenic to humans and they put RF-EMF in Group 2B. In conjunction with this, the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) reconsidered RF exposure limits, which should not be exceeded for human health. Whereas previous research have often focused on the result of EMF exposure and measures of EMF exposure limits, the research project presented here targets methods for decreasing Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM) Base Station (BS) and MS related health concerns with reference to the numbers, transmission powers and location of the BSs in the initial design stage. The goal of this project is therefore, to develop methods of reducing BS and MS related health concern while maintaining functionality and keeping additional investment expenditure as low as possible for the service providers. The proposed project also requires a review of relationship between EMF exposure due to GSM phones and BSs with cancer risks. The results should give an indication of the relationship between the number of BSs and the transmit powers and hand-off cut-off levels such that both BS and MS transmit at minimum possible levels for maintaining a reliable communication link in order to minimize health concerns and improve service quality without compromising the functionality and operational economy.
Mobile Phone as a Secure Micro Payment Tool
With the latest advances in Information and Communication Technologies (ICT), using different technologies for electronic-payment has become a very challenging issue in the retail market. The use of smart phones/portable communication devices became particularly attractive candidates when comfort, versatility, security and simplicity features of payment technologies are considered. In this research, the use of mobile communication devices as comfortable, versatile, secure and simple micro-payment tools, which satisfy the related financial, technological, computational and managerial requirements will be investigate. The versatility and security of the method comes from the use of a smart phones and a Variable Transaction Number (VTN) in each transaction. Experimental results have shown that, the systematic requirements for the implementation of this technology are minimal and the costs involved are very much reasonable.
Reading Aid for Visually Impaired People
The Project aims to design, implement, test and train the users for the reading aid for reading printed text in English for the blind. The printed characters will be detected and converted into speech by a wearable computing device. The characters read by a small camera mounted on a cap, camera or necklace will send the picture to a processor to be decoded and the decoded text will be converted by a speaker system or an earpiece.
The main objective of the first phase of the project is to design a portable device to help blind people read printed text, signs or diagrams and convert the reading into English spoken sound signals. The second phase will include multiple languages applications. The third phase of the text will involve reading pictures and translating it into spoken text. The device produced should have improved at least one feature of an existing device of the same category.
Channel Modelling and Signal Detection in High-Speed Robotics Communications Systems in 3D
As the robotics technologies develop and use of robots in societies spread, there will be a need to a communication link between the robots and the central processing system for the robots in a particular geographic area. In such systems, the 3D communication link should be able to handle a wide range of speed variations in x, y and z directions. The proposed solution can be adapted to flying cars and flying robots to be available by the year 2030.
Microwave Wireless Power Transmission System
With the widespread use of power hungry smart communication devices, keeping the devices up and running became a challenging issue related to continuous supply of electric power. Since the battery capacity is limited, it needs to be recharged as often as there is access to electric power. Hence, rather than spreading wires around, it could be a better solution to cover the medium with electricity wirelessly.
The project involves investigating the possibility of transmitting electric power wirelessly within a range of up to 10 m.
- Is it possible to transmit power wirelessly?
- What is the best frequency for transmitting power wirelessly within 10 m distances?
- What parameters are there to control for maximum power transmission?
- Is there a relationship between the choice of frequency and distance?
- Since antenna dimensions at higher frequencies become smaller and high gain antennas with very small dimensions is possible to design, it should be sensible to use higher frequencies for wireless power transmission. However, it is worth investigating if there are other problems emerging at higher frequencies.
Wireless Power Transmission System to Energize Wireless Sensors
High power electromagnetic waves traveling in the air suffer from severe attenuation. Therefore, it is extremely difficult to transport energy wirelessly. However, with the wide spread deployment of Wireless Sensors, especially in remote and inaccessible areas, the need to charge the batteries of these sensors or energize these sensors wirelessly necessitated revisiting the subject for possible improvement. When longer distances are considered, the problem becomes more trivial and the choice of best frequency for transmitting power wirelessly becomes a major issue.
This project involves investigation of the propagation characteristics, channel modelling and link simulation study for Wireless Power Transmission (WPT) systems. The following research questions need to be answered:
- Which Wireless Sensor (WS) requires the least power to operate within a sensible range of (say) 100m and what is this power? Give model and make
- What is the maximum possible distance to transmit enough power to operate a Wireless Sensor wirelessly?
- Is there a relationship between the choice of frequency and maximum distance to transmit power wirelessly? If yes, what is the best frequency to choose?
- Is the Wireless Power Transmission Channel (WPTC) possible to characterize?
- What parameters are there to control in a WPTC for maximum power transmission?
- Is there a relationship between the choice of frequency and maximum distance to transmit?
- Since antenna dimensions at higher frequencies become smaller and high gain antennas with very small dimensions is possible to design, it should be sensible to use higher frequencies for WPT. However, it is worth investigating if there are other problems emerging at higher frequencies.
Small Cell Cellular Mobile/Wireless Communications Systems
The ever increasing demand for wireless communication speed let scientist's way to multitude of different techniques from adaptive modulation to estimation and detection techniques. However, due to the limited Signal-to-Noise-Ratio at the receiver, the transmission rate has also been limited. One way of bridging this problem is by increasing the transmit power with the price of quickly draining battery for handheld devices. Another more sensible way is to reduce distances involved in communication by forming smaller cells. This is the very reason of cellular arrangements. However, putting aside macro-cells and micro-cells, even pico-cells can't deliver the required transmission rate for high-quality video communication targeted by LTE or 4G.
A cost effective solution to providing high quality communication link could be through the use of large number of small and low powered base stations. In such a network, the macro cells in suburban areas where performance is noise limited, will provide wider coverage but lower transmission rates, such as LTE. The small cells (i.e. femto cells) in the urban areas where performance is multipath, Inter-Symbol-Interference and Inter-Cell-Interference limited, on the other hand, will provide higher transmission rates in their coverage areas. The main objective of this project is to investigate the LTE performance of different scenarios for different frequency allocation schemes and system design strategies for maximizing network coverage. The coverage performance is expressed as the percentage of satisfied users achieving a data rate above a required minimum, with targets in the range of 90-95% coverage .
Different scenarios such as macro+micro+femto cells, micro+femto cells and femto cells only with fixed or variable number of femto cells/km2 will be tested for performance. The offloading and indoor cellular design concepts will also be integrated into the scenarios in order to fulfill the coverage targets. The trade-off between coverage, capacity, quality and cost will be considered.
 Claudio Coletti, "Heterogeneous Deployment Analysis for Cost-Effective Mobile Network Evolution - An LTE Operator Case Study –" Department of Electronic Systems, the Faculty of Engineering and Science, Aalborg University, PhD Degree, Aalborg, Denmark, September 2012.
High Capacity Terrestrial Video Broadcasting over LTE/LTE-A/B4G Networks
On one hand, the widespread of adaptive video broadcasting technologies satisfying the demands of different categories of people on different parts of the world, on the other hand, the production of high quality video content by a wide range of industries, educational institutions, public and private sectors etc. made all kinds of video content easily accessible, enhancing the video watching culture as a means of learning and entertainment. In the near future, due to the ever grooving demand for video broadcasting, the current LTE/LTE-A networks is expected to experience a serious congestion, which will require a great increase in the system capacity in terms of bandwidth and power.
The project presented here is aiming to contribute to the solution of problems encountered in the Video Broadcasting over LTE/LTE-A Networks with reference to smaller cell sizes enabling higher Signal-to-Noise Ratios, the frequency band being or expected to be allocated to these services and the new bandwidth and power efficient video broadcasting technologies.
Channel Estimation and Detection for DVB-T/S/H Systems
The standards and application scenarios of the DVB-T1 and DVB-T2, where the propagation conditions (additive noise channel or a multipath channel with a strong Line-of-Sight) are relatively easy to handle by the receiver, are well established. However, due to the absence of a reference signal such as a Line-of-Sight, the estimation and detection of the propagation medium parameters becomes trivial. This project deals with estimation and detection of the propagation medium parameters for a DVB-M system.